:Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic autoimmune demyelinating disease in the central nervous system. The myelin loss is mainly caused by dysfunction of oligodendrocytes and inflammatory responses of microglia and astrocytes further aggravate the demyelination. Current therapies for MS focus on suppressing the overactivated immune response but cannot halt the disease progress, so effective drugs are urgently needed. Compound 21 is a phloroglucinol derivative that has been proved to have an outstanding anti-inflammatory effect. The purpose of the present study is to investigate whether this novel compound is effective in MS. The cuprizone-induced model was used in this study to mimic the pathological progress of MS. The results showed that Compound 21 significantly improved the neurological dysfunction and motor coordination impairment. Luxol Fast Blue staining and myelin basic protein immunostaining demonstrated that Compound 21 remarkably promoted remyelination. In addition, Compound 21 significantly promoted oligodendrocytes differentiation. Furthermore, we found that Compound 21 decreased microglia and astrocytes activities and the subsequent neuroinflammatory response, indicating that the anti-inflammatory effect of Compound 21 was also involved in its neuro-protection. All the data prove that Compound 21 exerts protective effect on MS through promoting remyelination and suppressing neuroinflammation, indicating that Compound 21 might be a potential drug candidate for MS treatment.