摘要

BACKGROUND:Although several COVID-19 vaccines initially showed high efficacy, there have been concerns due to waning immunity and the emergence of variants with immune escape capacity.

METHODS:A test-negative design case-control study was conducted in 16 healthcare facilities in Japan during the Delta-dominant period (August-September 2021) and the Omicron-dominant period (January-March 2022). Vaccine effectiveness (VE) against symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection was calculated for 2 doses for the Delta-dominant period and 2 or 3 doses for the Omicron-dominant period, compared to unvaccinated individuals.

RESULTS:The analysis included 5795 individuals with 2595 (44.8%) cases. Among vaccinees, 2242 (55.8%) received BNT162b2 and 1624 (40.4%) received mRNA-1273 at manufacturer-recommended intervals. During the Delta-dominant period, VE was 88% (95% CI: 82-93) 14 days-3 months after dose 2 and 87% (95% CI: 38-97) 3-6 months after dose 2. During the Omicron-dominant period, VE was 56% (95% CI: 37-70) 14 days-3 months since dose 2, 52% (95% CI: 40-62) 3-6 months after dose 2, 49% (95% CI: 34-61) 6 + months after dose 2, and 74% (95% CI: 62-83) 14 + days after dose 3. Restricting to individuals at high risk of severe COVID-19 and additional adjustment for preventive measures (i.e. mask-wearing/high-risk behaviors) yielded similar estimates, respectively.

CONCLUSIONS:In Japan where most are infection-naïve and strict prevention measures are maintained regardless of vaccination status, 2-dose mRNA vaccines provided high protection against symptomatic infection during the Delta-dominant period and moderate protection during the Omicron-dominant period. Among individuals who received an mRNA booster dose, VE recovered to a high level.

关键词 SARS-CoV-2 variantscoronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)test-negative designvaccine effectiveness

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CLINICAL INFECTIOUS DISEASES

影响指数:20.978

中科院分区: 1区

方向:传染病学

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