METHODS:A test-negative design case-control study was conducted in 16 healthcare facilities in Japan during the Delta-dominant period (August-September 2021) and the Omicron-dominant period (January-March 2022). Vaccine effectiveness (VE) against symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection was calculated for 2 doses for the Delta-dominant period and 2 or 3 doses for the Omicron-dominant period, compared to unvaccinated individuals.
RESULTS:The analysis included 5795 individuals with 2595 (44.8%) cases. Among vaccinees, 2242 (55.8%) received BNT162b2 and 1624 (40.4%) received mRNA-1273 at manufacturer-recommended intervals. During the Delta-dominant period, VE was 88% (95% CI: 82-93) 14 days-3 months after dose 2 and 87% (95% CI: 38-97) 3-6 months after dose 2. During the Omicron-dominant period, VE was 56% (95% CI: 37-70) 14 days-3 months since dose 2, 52% (95% CI: 40-62) 3-6 months after dose 2, 49% (95% CI: 34-61) 6 + months after dose 2, and 74% (95% CI: 62-83) 14 + days after dose 3. Restricting to individuals at high risk of severe COVID-19 and additional adjustment for preventive measures (i.e. mask-wearing/high-risk behaviors) yielded similar estimates, respectively.
CONCLUSIONS:In Japan where most are infection-naïve and strict prevention measures are maintained regardless of vaccination status, 2-dose mRNA vaccines provided high protection against symptomatic infection during the Delta-dominant period and moderate protection during the Omicron-dominant period. Among individuals who received an mRNA booster dose, VE recovered to a high level.